Recently, a conscious interest in cultural heritage has been awakened in society, not only at the state level, but also among ordinary residents. People began to remember the glorious history of their people more often, the events in honor of which monuments were erected. Unfortunately, it took a lot of time to approve the Law “On Cultural Heritage”, and only on June 8, 2000 was it signed by the President. After the collapse of the Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments of the former Soviet Union, most of the monument protection documentation of Kremenchug was lost, the monuments were left almost unattended.
Some of them became victims of vandalism, some boards made of non-ferrous metals were stolen, monuments made of short-lived materials began to collapse over time. In order to deal with the accounting and protection of cultural heritage monuments, enthusiasm itself is not enough, certain funds are needed, which are chronically lacking. At the XI session of the city council of the IV convocation dated April 10, 2003, the “List of cultural heritage monuments of the city of Kremenchug” was approved. Currently, 201 monuments were registered and protected by the state. Of these, 72 monuments of monumental art, 42 mass graves and individual burials of famous people, 57 architectural monuments, 21 buildings associated with important historical events and activities of famous people, 7 archaeological monuments and 2 monuments of landscape art. By the decision of the same session, the balance holders of the city’s cultural heritage objects were approved.
With the adoption of the Law “On the Protection of Cultural Heritage”, the city began to pay more attention to historical heritage, and new monuments began to appear. In the period from 2000 to 2008, 16 new monuments, memorial plaques and commemorative signs were installed and registered in Kremenchug, in particular:
- Memorial complex “On the Afghan path”, dedicated to soldiers – internationalists (village Molodezhnoye, Park of Soldiers-Internationalists)
- The memorial stele “The first day after the war” is the only monument of its kind in Ukraine (Victory Square).
Both monuments were built at the expense of the Party for the National Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine (PNERRU) and the Honorary Citizen of the city V.M. Matytsin.
- A memorial plaque in honor of the world-famous scientists V.V. Dokuchaev and V.I. Vernadsky, who stayed in 1890 in the building of the former Victoria Hotel (Karl Marx Street, 10-A) while studying the soils of the Kremenchug district.
- Memorial plaque in honor of the founder and first rector of the Institute of Economics and New Technologies, Professor Yu. I. Kravchenko (1948 – 1997) (Proletarskaya St., 24/37).
- Memorial plaque in honor of the Honored Doctor of the Ukrainian SSR B.I. Nagaichenko (1929-1992) (21 Pushkin Blvd.).
- A memorial sign in honor of the 10th anniversary of the Independence of Ukraine (Victory Square).
- Memorial sign in honor of the mayor I.K. Ponomarenko (1940 – 1999) (60 years of October st., 62).
- Memorial sign dedicated to the dead prisoners of war and civilians (Kryukov).
- Memorial sign “To the victims of fascism” on the territory of the Kremenchug railway technical school. During the Great Patriotic War, this place was a prisoner of war camp.
- Memorial plaque to the founder and first rector of the Kremenchug State Polytechnic University Maslov V.E. (St. Pervomayskaya, 20).
- Memorial plaque to the famous Soviet singer Vladimir Vysotsky (st. 1905, 2).
- A commemorative sign for military formations and units that distinguished themselves in the battles for Kremenchug (Peace Park).
- Monument to V. I. Vernadsky (October Square).
- Memorial sign “To the victims of the Holocaust” (Kvartalnaya street, territory of the synagogue). Opened at the expense of the Jewish community and V. M. Matytsin in memory of 15 thousand Jews of Kremenchug and the region, who were destroyed by the Nazis in 1941-1943.
- A memorial sign to six Komsomol members of the underground from a shag factory who died at the hands of Denikin at the end of 1919 (Proletarskaya St., on the right at the entrance to the city, in a park area.
- Monument to T. G. Shevchenko in the Pridneprovsky park. On April 19, 2004, a bronze figure of the great son of the Ukrainian people Taras Shevchenko was installed in Kremenchug. It is believed that the genius of Ukrainian and world literature in 1843 and 1845 visited our city. At least the route of his travels in Ukraine
lay in such a way that it must certainly pass through our city. Evidence of this is the mention of Kremenchug and Kryukov in the works “Servant” and “Captain”. The prehistory of the monument is as follows. The people of Kremenchu have long dreamed of having a monument to the great Kobzar in the city. Back in 1922, a competition was held for the best design of such a monument. The work of the former chief architect of the city L.M. won the victory in it. Shlapakovsky, but it was never implemented. In the 80s, they returned to this idea again, as a result of which in March 1989 a memorial plaque to T. G. Shevchenko was opened (corner of Lenin Ave. and T. G. Shevchenko. The authors of the bas-relief are architects M. Ya. Zavadsky, S I. Tkachenko and sculptor V. S. Gulyi February 22
1990, the decision of the city executive committee No. 137 “On the construction of a monument to T. G. Shevchenko in Kremenchug” was adopted, a place was determined for it and a memorial sign was installed (Pushkin Boulevard, near Prominvestbank. Fundraising began in the city. But the monument was not installed this time either The epic continued: in 1994, the symbolic first stone of the future monument was laid in another place – on the embankment of the Dnieper. And only 10 years later, in 2004, the sculpture was finally installed. Now it can be argued that the monument to T. G. Shevchenko in There is Kremenchug, its grand opening took place on the day of the reburial of the poet on May 22, 2004.
Among other changes in the monument protection work were: clearing of late deposits and the installation of a new commemorative plaque near the natural monument “Rock-Register” (River Station Area, 2003). In 2008-2009, a new memorial sign was installed in honor of the Battle of Kurukovo and a new obelisk on the grave of pilot M. G. Vinogradov, the wooden cross of the monument “Victims of the Holodomor of 1932-1933” was replaced with a granite one.
For City Day 2008, the Alley of Heroes of the Soviet Union in Oktyabrsky Square was reconstructed. On 18 granite slabs, portraits of Kremenchuzhan heroes are carved.
Residents of the city do not forget their outstanding countrymen: on the initiative of the Kremenchug Medical College, the Kremenchug City Children’s Hospital and the Kremenchug Museum of Local Lore, on June 17, 2009, a memorial plaque was solemnly opened to the Honored Doctor of Ukraine, Honorary Citizen of the City V. T. Fedko (Author V. Volkova).
The city is well aware of the exploits and the unusual fate of S. Kovalenko from Kremenchuk – the famous commander of the Shch-403 submarine, who became the prototype of the protagonist of the feature film “Commander of the Happy Pike”. On February 16, 2009, on the occasion of the centenary of the birth of the hero-submariner, a memorial plaque was unveiled on the house of secondary school No. 1.
Recently, several unusual monuments, rather just sculptures, have appeared in the city. These are the “Monument to the Plumberman”, erected on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the city water utility, and the symbolic “Pike from Kremenchug” (let us recall on this occasion the well-known folk song about the pike from Kremenchug, recorded in the notes of the great Kobzar. On May 22, 2008, the Panorama newspaper announced a competition original ideas for the establishment of sculpture in Kremenchuk, would reproduce the history and traditions of the city, the character of its inhabitants and could become the hallmark of the city. It was I. Akhmetzyanova’s “Pike” that won this competition. On July 29, 2009, the sculpture was installed in Prydniprovsky Park (Author V. Maksimenko). It was created at the expense of the Dzherelo Dnieper Charitable Foundation. The cute “Pike” immediately liked the witty Kremenchan residents. The newest belief quickly arose in the city: if lovers lay hands on
in the mouth of a pike, then they will be together forever. For the realization of cherished desires, the practical “Pike” expects a small monetary contribution.
Kremenchuk, completely destroyed during the war years, cannot boast of numerous masterpieces of medieval architecture, however, some very interesting architectural monuments of the early. 20th century are still preserved in the city. On the right bank – this is the former house of the merchant of the 1st guild G.E. Churkina (Prikhodko str., 11), built in 1902 in an eclectic style with extensive use of the traditions of Russian Art Nouveau and individual elements
ancient Russian architecture, baroque and classicism. G. E. Churkin is a well-known city philanthropist. At his expense, 2 orphanages were opened. The building of one of them (Chkalova street, 4) has survived to our time and is recognized as an architectural monument of local importance. The shelter was built in 1910. In 1914, a military hospital was located in this building, in the 30s there was the Kremenchug Industrial College, where the famous Ukrainian composer G.I. Mayboroda. In August 1941, the headquarters of the 297th rifle division, which defended the city, was located here, and from 06/22/1941 to 08/08/1941, the 1341st evacuation hospital was based. Now this building houses STPU No. 26.
Another interesting architectural monument is the Palace of Culture. Kotlova (I.M. Prikhodko St., 100), built by the decision of the workers of the Kryukov car repair workshops in 1927. One of the first workers’ clubs in Ukraine was located here. The palace was built in the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style using elements of Ukrainian folk architecture. The club is named after the outstanding Kremenchug revolutionary I.F. Kotlov (1874 – 1919), in 1900 – 1916 he worked as a painter in the Kryukov carriage repair workshops. During the years of Soviet power, Kotlov held high government positions.
positions. He died and was buried on Skobeleva Square in Kharkov.
Among the monuments that died during the war, one should mention the outstanding architectural structure of Kremenchug in the past – the Assumption Cathedral, built in 1804 – 1816. designed by G. Quarenghi. The Kremenchug Assumption Cathedral was included in the “List of outstanding monuments of history and culture that require priority reproduction” (1998), developed in pursuance of the Decree of the President of Ukraine “On
Measures to Recreate the Outstanding Monuments of History and Culture of Ukraine” dated December 9, 1995. The Cathedral was a beautiful single-domed stone building with a large hemispherical dome
drum, decorated with six-column porticos of the Corinthian order with triangular pediments. Destroyed September 1943
Now the most ancient architectural landmark of Kremenchug is the tower of the ensemble of provincial “offices” (House for monitoring traffic along the Dnieper), built by order of Governor General G.M. Potemkin in 1783 – 1787. On the banks of the Dnieper to accommodate the governing bodies of the Novorossiysk province, and later – the Yekaterinoslav governorship. Here, for many years after the death of G. M. Potemkin, his silver service and the so-called “Evgenevsky” were kept, the library consisted of up to 2000 volumes, including 217 foreign books, scientific dissertations, musical scores
operas, works on church history, the “Gospel” in ancient gilded salaries, decorated with precious stones. Until recently, this house (Gogol St., 2) housed a club and a library of a military hospital. The memo is included in the State Register of National Cultural Heritage (in the section “Monuments of urban planning and architecture”).
Separately, we should dwell on the monuments of archeology. As a result of anthropogenic intervention, several coastal settlements of the Neolithic – Bronze Age, and possibly even earlier, were destroyed, as evidenced by individual Mesolithic finds. Chernyakhov and other materials found in the zone of dense urban development are not available for study and protection.
The latest archaeological surveys (autumn 2003), in addition to the already known sights, in the city and on its outskirts, about 50 burial mounds were discovered, which, given the new surge of “Black Archeology”, also require close protection.
I would like to hope that due attention will be paid to the issue of accounting, protection, preservation and research of historical and cultural monuments of our city. Kremenchuk has deep roots, and this should be visible to everyone. Actually, for this purpose there are cultural monuments – embodied, materialized history.
Author: Gudz Ya.A.
Materials of scientific – practical conference “Kremenchuk – 435 years”